What's New 
More about Insects
Insects Evolution
Praying Mantids
Crickets and Katydids
Stick Insects
Aphids and Scale Insects
Leafhoppers & Treehoppers
True Bugs
Mirid Bugs
Assassin Bugs 
Lygaeid Bugs
Coreid Bugs
Stink Bugs
Scarab Beetles
Jewel Beetles
Click Beetles
Darkling Beetles
Longicorn Beetles
Leaf Beetles
Weevils Beetles
Scorpion Flies
Crane Flies and Mosquitoes 
Tabanoid Flies 
Robber Flies
Bee Flies
Long-legged Flies 
Hover Flies
Acalyptrata Flies 
Calyptratae Flies
Tachinid Flies
Parasite Wasps 
Ichneumon Wasps 
Braconid Wasps
Vespoid Wasps
Apoid Wasps 
Jumping Spiders
Hunting Spiders
Orb Web Weavers 
Web Building Spiders
Links & Ref


Brisbane Insects and Spiders Home Page

Welcome to Brisbane Insects and Spiders home page. 

We are the Chew's family  in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Our interest is to study the nature. We go to the bush on weekends to watch insects and spiders. 

We are not professionals. We recorded and commented on what we found. On the following pages, we are NOT going to tell you insects and spiders are different because they have six or eight legs, NOR the butterflies and moths are different because they have different antennae etc.. Instead, by discussions, we try to find out why there are differences. We try to find out more about Evolution.

Please proceed and look at our works. Don't forget to give us comments. If you have any question about insects or spiders, please email to us and we will try to find the answer. You may want to check our FAQ first. 

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We put all information of this Brisbane Insects and Spiders web site into one CD. There are the most updated Insects and Spiders information and large monitor screen  wallpapers of Insects and Spiders.

Order Ephemeroptera 
Mayflies - Mayflies are a group of quite uncommon insects. We did not found many of them in Brisbane. They are considered to be one of the most primitive insect order. They have large forewing and small to absent hind wings. They have large eyes and very short antenna. They can be distinguished by their three long abdominal appendages. Their larvae live in fresh water. Adults usually live only a few hours, or some species maximum one day or two.

Order Odonata 
Damselflies - Damselflies are usually smaller than Dragonflies and with slender body. They spend more time to rest and not flying in air than the dragonflies. When they are at rest, damselflies usually fold up and hold their wings vertically. Damselflies lay their eggs in flash water where the larva grow. Larvae need fairly precise habitat and sensitive to water pollution. Adult is a predator in the sky and preying on flying insects. Larva may spend one to three years in water, depend on species, while adults live only a few weeks.
Brisbane Damselflies Field Guide 
Dragonflies - Dragonfly bodies are long and slender, usually with bright metallic colour. All of them have two pairs of membranous wings. Their hind wings and forewings are more or less similar size and shape. When they are at rest, dragonflies held out theirs wings horizontally. Dragonflies are strong flyer and spend most of the time in air. Their larvae live in fresh water. They have very small antennae but very large compound eyes. Their mouths are very good at biting.
Brisbane Dragonflies Field Guide

Order Blattodea
Cockroaches - Not all cockroaches are ugly. Most of them are beautiful insects although this perception is always outweighed by their name "cockroaches". Most cockroaches have long legs, and with antennae longer than the body. Their body is usually flat and broad. Adults may have or no wings. If they have, the wings are membranous with toughened forewings which overlap left over right. The head is small and pointing downwards, concealed under the pronotum. So sometime their thorax are miss-considered as their big heads.

Order Isoptera
Termites - Termite is very closely related to Cockroaches. They are soft-bodied and live in enclosed environments. All termites are fully social. They live in family group as a colony. Each colony has several castes, with different body shape and behaviour to perform different jobs. Usually there are three major castes, the reproductives kings and queens, soldiers and workers. Nymph stages of all those castes are also present in the colony.

Order Mantodea
Praying Mantids - Mantids are predators to other insects, with strong forelegs which have spines. They have strong mouthparts for chewing. Their eyes are large and well apart on each side of their mobile head, so that they can locate precisely their prey at close distance. Most mantids sit and wait among the vegetation ready to grasp unsuspecting prey by their powerful forelegs. They wait motionless with their forelegs together and this gave them their name of Praying Mantids.

Order Orthoptera
Crickets and Katydids - Their hind legs are highly developed, much stronger and larger than the other four legs. They are very good in jumping. The adults insects have four wings, the front wings, knows as tegmina, is tough and narrow when compare with the hind wings. Crickets and Katydids have very long antennae, some may be several times of their body length. The auditory organs located on the fore legs. Their stridulation are produced by the mechanisms on the base of their forewings. The females usually have long ovipositors extended from the end of their abdomen.
Grasshoppers - Grasshoppers hind legs are highly developed, much stronger and larger than the front four legs. They are very good in jumping. The adults insects have four wings, the front wings, knows as tegmina, is tough and narrow when compare with the hind wings. Grasshopper's antennae are not very long. Most species feed on grass and low bushes. The auditory organs are on the first segment of their abdomen. They produce their love song, the stridulation, by lateral part of their forewings. Females normally larger than males and with short ovipositors.
Brisbane Grasshoppers Field Guide  

Order Phasmatodea 
Stick Insects - Stick insects are large to very large insects. They tend to resemble sticks and twigs, usually they are green to brown in colour. Some of them look like leaves. They spend most of their time hanging motionless in plants. Even if they move, they sway slightly, as if caught by the movement of the wind. They are not easily seen for their camouflage. Stick insects have powerful mandibles. They are herbivorous, they eat plant leaves only, usually feed on broad-leaved plants. In general, females are much larger than males. The male can fly, but the female can only glide.

Order Hemiptera
Aphids, Scale Insects and Mealy Bugs - There are many families in the suborder Sternorrhyncha (Soft Bugs). Aphids are small size with soft body, usually wingless. Most species have a pair of posterior at the abdomen. Like most other bugs they are sap-sucking insects. Scale Insects covered with wax secretion and do not look like insect. Young scale insects may still have some insects appearance but when they grow, most of their external organs reduced. Mealy Bugs are flat with waxy excretions of white powdery substance. They seldom move and feed in the same way as aphids and scale insects.
Cicadas - Cicadas are familiar in Brisbane because their 'song' is the back ground noise here in summer. Their empty shells often seen on tree trunks and fences.  The young nymphs live underground suck the roots of trees. They may live underground for years, come up from soil in summer, have the final moulting and leave those empty shells. 
Leafhoppers & Treehoppers - Leafhoppers and Treehoppers have the most aerodynamic-shaped body in the insect world. They are shaped by evolution. They have thicker forewings known as tegmina which serve to protect when the insects are at rest. All of them are strong jumpers. Most nymphs can jump as well. When jump, they have the highest moving speed in the insect world. Most ambush predators do not target at them because of their high speed of escape. 
Planthoppers - Planthoppers are small, plants feeding insects ranging in colour from green, through yellow-green to brown. They can be found on tree trunks, stems and leaves. They feed by sucking the sap of plants. All of them jump, so their name hoppers. Their antennae situated beneath eyes. Wax plates common in females for producing wax to cover eggs. The nymphs usually have two long tails. Nymph and adult feed by sucking the sap of the host tree. Leafhoppers are small, plants feeding insects. They can be found on tree trunks, stems and leaves. They feed by sucking the sap of plants. All of them jump, so their name hoppers. Some of their adults are active flyer.
True Bugs - All bugs suck juice from plants or other insects. They are incomplete metamorphosis and their young, the nymphs, look much the same as their adults excepts smaller and wingless. They usually have flat and soft bodies. Their forewings are toughen on the base area and with a membranous tip part. Their antennae are well developed with up to five segments. Most of them are from small to medium size. Most species of true bugs have stink glands. These glands usually give off a foul odor when the insect is disturbed.
Mirid Bugs - Mirid Bugs in family Miridae are common in Australia. Miridae is the largest family of the Heteroptera. However, we did not find too many of them. Most of them are very small, 2-6mm in body length. Some are very well camouflaged. Most bugs in this family feed on plants while others on small soft body insects and insect eggs. Some species feed on both.
Assassin Bugs - All Assassin bugs are predators. They prey on all small animal such as snails, insects including caterpillars, spiders and other arthropods. They can be distinguished from other bugs by their elongated head and short curved proboscis. All other plant-feeding bugs have their proboscis flat against under their head when not in use. Assassin Bugs' proboscis is curved outwards from the head. To catch prey, Assassin Bugs swing their proboscis forwards to attack.
Lygaeid Bugs - We put all bugs in superfamily LYGAEOIDEA and PYRRHOCOROIDEA in this section. They include the Seed bugs, Milkweed Bugs, Big-eyed Bugs, Coon Bugs, Largid bugs and Cotton Stainers Bugs.
Coreid Bugs - Coreid Bugs in Superfamily COREOIDEA include family Coreidae - Tip Wilter, Leaf Footed Bugs, Squash Bugs, family Alydidae - Broad Headed Bugs and family Rhopalidae - Red-eyes bugs. They have a series of longitudinal parallel veins in the membrane of the fore wings and have ocelli, which distinguish them from lygaeids bugs.
Stink Bugs - Any shield-shaped insect of the superfamily Pentatomoidea, especially any of the family Pentatomidae called Shield Bug. They also called Stink Bug. They have stink glands. These glands usually give off a foul odor when the insect is disturbed. Sting bugs have the common characteristic of their sucking mouths. All of them suck juice from plants or other insects. They usually have flat and soft bodies. Their forewings are toughen on the base area and with a membranous tip part. Their antennae are well developed with up to five segments.
Brisbane Stink Bugs Field Guide 

Order Neuroptera
Lacewings - Lacewings have two pairs of transparent wings of about the same size. Although they are not very good flier, their wings are large and membranous, with complex vein pattern. This is why they are called Lacewings. Their bodies are long and soft. They have the biting and chewing mouthparts. They are the predators of other insects. Their size is from very small as 5mm to wings spans as large as 150mm. The famous Antlions are in this order. Antlion is the common name given to the larvae of  those insects. The larvae build sand traps to trap the ants walk by.

Order Coleoptera 
Beetles - Beetles, order Coleoptera, is the largest and most diverse order of insects. Their size is ranges from 0.5mm to 200mm. J.B.S. Haldane's famous comment on beetles has been quoted many times. During a lecture on the biological aspects of space flight given in 1951. Haldane remarked that "the Creator, if He exists, has a special preference for beetles, and so we might be more likely to meet them than any other type of animal on a planet that would support life". All beetles have hard forewings, called elytra, which do not do much help in flying but cover the membranous hind wings and protect the abdomen.
Scarab Beetles - The beetles in this family are usually medium to large size, occasionally with bright colour. They have distinctive lamellate antennae which opens like a small fan and they can close it together as a compact club. Beetles in other families may have the similar lamellate antenna but they cannot close it. Legs, especially the fore coaxes, are usually shaped good for digging. Adults beetles usually feed on leaves and flowers. Most of them  have functional wings and are active flyers.
Jewel Beetles - Jewel Beetles can normally be seen feeding nectar on flowers in bush during a sunny day. Some Jewel Beetles are leaves feeder. They ranged from small to very large size. Their body is elongated and flattened. They are brightly coloured and often have a metallic sheen which make their common name Jewel Beetles. The antenna are relatively short and not clubbed. Jewel Beetles are active and ready to fly during daytime. They can be found feeding on native flowers especially Eucalyptus and Leptospermum flowers.
Click Beetles - The Superfamily Elateroidea includes the Click Beetle, Lycid Beetles and Soldier Beetles. The beetles in the Superfamily Elateroidea are either brown to dark brown or bright in colour. They are from small to large in size. Their body shape is usually narrow and parallel-sided. The adults are usually feed on nectar and pollen. Some are feed on plants leave. Larva may be found underground or under the bark of living trees.
Ladybirds - Ladybird Beetles are also known as Ladybugs and Lady Beetles. The adults are oval domed in shape. Like all beetles, their hard forewings cover the membranous hind wings and protect the abdomen. Their legs and their clubbed antenna are short, which are usually hidden beneath their bodies when disturbed. Most Ladybird Beetles are brightly colored. This is a warning signal to tell the predator that the ladybirds are distasteful and toxic. When disturbed some ladybirds may emit a strong smelling yellow liquid as a deterrent against predators.
Brisbane Ladybirds Field Guide 
Darkling Beetles - Tenebrionoidea is a very large group of insects included more than twenty beetle families. Most of them have 5 segments on front tarsus, 5 on mid and 4 on hind. The tarsal formula 5-5-4 is a fairly reliable way to recognize a beetle in Tenebrionoidea (others are 5-5-5 or 4-4-4). Larvae of Tenebrionoidea are usually long and narrow with well developed legs. Most are fungal feeders live within rotting wood or on ground with rotten plant materials. A few others are predator or parasitic.
Longicorn Beetles - All members in this family are commonly called Longicorn Beetles. They have very long antennae, typically 11 segmented. Their antenna can directed backwards over their body. Adults are active fliers. Their body usually elongated and cylindrical in shape. Their legs are medium long. They have obvious strong mandibles for chewing, many feed on flowers. Most Longicorn Beetle larva are wood borers. Usually they are host specific of living or dead trees. Their life cycles are from few months to more than a year.
Leaf Beetles - Leaf beetles adults usually range in size from 5 to 15 mm in length and brightly coloured. They have different body shapes from elongate or flattened to globular. Some may be mistaken for ladybird beetles due to their oval shape. Their antenna usually less than half the length of their bodies. Most of the Leaf Beetle we found were feeding primarily on eucalypts and acacias. Both the adults and larvae eat plant material, store those plant chemicals in their body, and are poisonous to the predators. There is no wonder why most of them  are with bright warning colour.
Weevils Beetles
Insects in this group are commonly called weevils. Adults have the elongation of the head to form a rostrum and modified mouth parts. They usually have a rigid body. Their antennae are always clubbed and some are elbowed. Generally the rostrum has elongated groove on each side for the reception of the antennae. Weevil larvae are usually legless grubs or with very minute legs. They have hard round head and often blind. They feed on vegetable parts includes wood, bark, shoots, buds, leaves and roots, some are on grain and stored vegetable products.

Order Mecoptera
Scorpion Flies - Scorpion flies look similar to true flies, however, they have two pair of wings. Their males have the end of the abdomen curved and held forward, very much like that of a scorpion's sting, so their name Scorpion fly. Scorpion flies are predatory insects. When waiting for prey, they hang from plants by their front legs with the other legs positioned ready to catch any prey insect that passes by. They are very conspicuous on the plants and not easily noticed. They have their strong hind legs to catch prey. Their larvae look like caterpillars. They live in loose soil or debris.

Order Diptera  
Flies and mosquitoes - The insects in this order have only one pair of membranous flying wings. The second pair of wings are reduced to small knobs, for the purpose of balancing. Their body is relatively soft and hairy. They have a pair of large compound eyes, a pair of very short antennae and a sucking mouth. They are strong flier. They are active in day time but some are active at night. Most species with external digestion, foods are liquidized by their enzymes before suck up by their sucking mouths. Some species, like the mosquitoes, pierce the prey skin with their sharp mouthparts and suck up the blood.
Cane Flies and mosquitoes - Crane Flies and mosquitoes are classified in order Diptera, which mean two wings. The insects in this order have only one pair of membranous flying wings. The second pair of wings are reduced to small knobs, called halteres , for the purpose of balancing. Their body is relatively soft and hairy. They have a pair of large compound eyes, a pair of very short antennae and a sucking mouth. Members in suborder Nematocera are generally primitive flies, all with filamentous antenna of 6-14 segment. Usually their bodies and legs are elongated, with a relatively long abdomen. Larvae are mostly aquatic.
- This superfamily Tabanoidea includes the  March Flies Family Tabanidae and other smaller size families. They are generalised by the wing venation CuA reaching the wing margin or meeting 1A near its apex. Larvae are aquatic or terrestrial. March Flies have stout body and they are from small to large in size. They are usually grey to brown in colours, a few are colourful. They have large eyes with reflective iridescent colour. The antenna are segmented flagellum. Their mouth is the strong straight proboscis for piercing and sucking. Their wings always have the 'Y' shaped veins at the tip. Usually there are the dense short hairs on their body.
Robber Flies - The Robber Flies are air hunter. They also known as an Assassin Fly or Bee Killer. They have strong legs which can catch prey on flight. They are medium to large size flies with large eyes and necked head. They are active predators on flying insects, unselective in prey species. They even prey on web weaving spiders. Their mouthparts are the triangular proboscis which insert into prey and suck the juice. Most Robust flies are with noticeable "beard" of setae around the face. It is believed that they serve as protection to their face from damage by their prey.
Bee Flies - Bee Flies are hairy, most of them mimic wasps or bees. However, they have stout and woolly body and do not have narrowed waist. Their wings are easily recognized with distinctive vein pattern, usually dark in colour, some with patterns or spots. When at rest, their wings are flat in outspread position. Their head is occupied by their large eyes, more or less in hemispherical shape. Their legs are slender and without bristles. Their claws are small. Bee Flies favour warm, and sunny localities. Most have a strong, hovering flight and are usually found hovering on blossom or patches of bare soil. 
Long-legged Flies - Long-legged Flies are minute to small in size with bright metallic colors, mostly green or bronze. Their legs are long so they have other common name Long-legged Flies. They are usually found resting on large green leaves. Adult Dolichopodid Flies feed on smaller soft body insects such as aphids. Larvae are usually found in moist soil and under tree bark. They are either scavengers or predators of other insects larvae.
Hover Flies - Hover Flies are also known as Flower Flies. Some species are called Drone Flies. Hover Flies may sometimes confused with stinging bees or wasps because of their mimic colour (Batesian mimics of Hymenoptera). Their bodies are slender, from small to medium in size. On their abdomen there are the yellow-black bends and narrow waist mimic pattern. Some species resemble muscoid flies. Hover Flies visit flowers as bees and wasps. They are major pollinators of some flower plants. They are usually seen hovering or resting on flowers.
Acalyptrata Flies - The name Acalyptrata refers to lack of calypters in this group of flies, which is opposite to the Calyptrata group. The Acalyptrata is a large group which includes more that thirty fly families exhibiting very diverse habits. One common characteristic in this group is there are no known Acalyptrata flies that are obligate blood-feeders. 
Calyptratae Flies - Calyptratae is a large group of flies in insect order Diptera. They are commonly referred to as the calyptrate muscoids or simply calyptrates. They include the House Flies, Bush Flies, Blowflies, Flesh Flies and Tachinid flies. They are from small to large in size. They have the well developed calypters (plate near the wing base covering the haltere). They are usually from grey to black in colours. Some with stripes on scutum (thorax) and some are metallic green or blue in colours. The can be distinguished by their common wing vein patterns.
Tachinid Flies - Tachinidae is one of the largest families of Diptera. Tachinid flies are relatively soft bodied, from small to large size insects. They may be drab, brightly coloured, or mimics wasp. Tachinid flies are extremely diverse in appearance and many do not have the typical grey-black, bristly faces. All Tachinid Flies share the parasitoid habit, their larvae are parasites in other insects. They mainly parasites on larvae of moths or butterflies, larvae or adults of beetles, adults of bugs, or adults of various orthopteroid orders, such as grasshoppers and stick insects. 

Order Lepidoptera
Moths - Moths are much more diverse than butterflies in Brisbane and some of them we found are not yet identified. Their body size are range from 3mm to 60mm. Moths are usually dull in colour and active at night. However there are some exceptions, some  moths are day flying and as colourful as butterflies. The larva is caterpillar, with a head and soft thorax and usually 10- segmented abdomen. They are complete metamorphosis. The adults are usually feed on nectar and pollen, while most caterpillars feed on plants leave, but some are feed on wood or roots.
Case Moths and Leaf-miners - Superfamily TINEOIDEA includes Case Moths and Leaf-miners. Larvae in this group live in silken tubular shelters or portable case. Many of them are leaf-miners. Some of them are leaf-miners as young larvae, later either joining adjacent leaves with silk or feeding exposed on the surface. Most species the caterpillars live in a mobile case. The case is made of silk and plants materials. Each species make case in different shapes. For some species, if it is a female, it will not develop wings and will never come out of the bag. It just wait for a winged male in her bag.
Concealer Moths and Leafrollers - Moths in this group are medium in size. When rest, they usually held the antenna backwards along the outside edge of wing. Some species held wings roof-like and some held wing flat back over body. The caterpillars are usually small and hairless, have wide variable of "concealed" habits, from spinning leaves together to constructing various forms of portable cases. Some of them make tunnel in wood, stems, flowers or galls. Some of them feed on decay plant materials.
Day Flying Moths - The moths in this group we found include many different families. Most of them are colourful and active during the day. They include COSSIDAE, TORTRICIDAE, CASTNIIDAE, CHOREUTIDAE, ZYGAENIDAE and LIMACODIDAE.
Pyralid Moths - Family PYRALIDAE was recently split into CRAMBIDAE and PYRALIDAE.  In general, moths in this two families rest with wings in triangular shape. They are small in size and have relatively long legs. Their caterpillars have many different types of habits. Most are concealed feeder, living in lives tied with silk, in silken webs or in leaf cases jointed by silk. Some bore in stems or fruits while some live in plant materials on ground or in soil.
Looper MothsTheir caterpillars move with curving their bodies into loops. This is why they commonly called Loopers. They are also known as Inch Worms because they apparently measuring off one inch at a time as they move. Some of them are called Twig Caterpillars because their resting posture look like a twig. The adult moths rest with wings open on flat surface. They fly weakly at night. Some are green in colour hence the common name Emeralds.
Bombycoid Moths - Moths in this superfamily Bombycoidea are large in size with very board wings. Males have large bipectinate antennae. The caterpillars spin elaborate cocoons. They include Snout Moths and Anthelid Moths. Hawk Moth Sphingidae is the only family in superfamily Sphingoidea. Some references put this family in superfamily Bombycoidea.
Notodontid Moths - They include the Prominent Moths, Tussock Moths, Tiger Moths and Noctuid Moths. Most Caterpillars of  Prominent Moth will raise their head and/or tail when disturbed. Some of them are hairy but some are smooth with few spines. 
Tussock Moths - Moths in this family are are from small to medium in size with furry hairy body. They are short lived, mouth parts are poorly developed and do not feed at all. They held their board wings root-like over their abdomen when rest. Some species adults rest with wings flattened forming a triangle and the fore legs extended forward. The male moth antenna broadly pectinate and curved. Females have very large abdomen when emerge from pupa. The abdomen is full of eggs and ready to lay. In some species the females are wingless.  They are usually active at night.
Tiger Moths - Family Arctiidae and Family Aganaidae are very close related, sometimes Aganaidae is put under Arctiidae as its sub-family. The moths in this two families are brightly coloured in orange, yellow and black. Their abdomen usually striped with black and yellow-red colour. The stripes give rise to the name "Tiger Moths". Most of them active during the day. Most Caterpillars of the two families are covered in dense dark hairs, which gives them the name "Woolly Bears". The hairs can cause irritation in sensitive skin.
Noctuid Moths - Family Noctuidae, their Caterpillars are usually smooth or with little hairs. They are from small to large size. The adults mainly fly at night. They usually feed on nectar from flowers or ripe fruit. Most are dull in colour, but some have colourful hindwings. Some Noctuidae caterpillar are called Cutworms, some called Armyworms and some called Semi-loopers. Cutworms live in soil surface. They bite off young plants at ground level and pull them into their burrow. Armyworms eat their way across like an army on the march. Semi-loopers loop their bodies when moving as the Lopper caterpillars of the family GEOMETRIDAE.
Owl Moths - Moths in this subfamily Catocalinae are usually medium to very large in size. All of them are strong fliers. Most of them have robust body and broad wings. Some of the them have brightly coloured hind wings which are normally covered. Some others have eye-shaped patterns on their wings. They usually have strong proboscis. Their antennae are usually simple. The caterpillars in Catocalinae are usually smooth-skinned and lack of hairs. They are long and slender. Some of them have prolegs of segments 3, or 3 and 4 missing and known as semi-looper. They move in looping action. They pupate in a rather scant silk cocoon, usually on or between leaves of host plants.
Skipper and Darter Butterflies - The butterflies in this family are from small to medium size. Their bodies are large and with relatively small wings. They are usually yellow or white in a dark brown background colour. They fly in a very rapid and jerky style, this is why they call skippers. They are not as colourful as the other four butterfly families. Most of them rest with the hindwings open, although a few rest with wings completely closed. Their antenna is usually hooked at the tip. Caterpillars are usually with smooth body skin, more or less cylindrical shaped. They usually live and feed in concealed environment.
Swallowtail Butterflies - Most of the butterflies in this family are large in size and with brilliant colours. They are called Swallowtails because some of species have tailed hindwings. However, not all family members have tails. Most Swallowtails found in Brisbane have no tails. Caterpillars in this family have special method to defense against predators. They have a special fork-shaped organ osmeterium on their heads, when disturbed, will shoot out and produce the pungent smell that could make most predators avoid them.
White and Yellow Butterflies - The butterflies are in medium size. They usually have white or yellow wings with black edges, and some have red and yellow patterns beneath their wings. They don't have tails on their hindwings. Their flight is rapid and they usually fly erratically amongst the plants. Their caterpillars are usually green or reddish brown in colour.  They are usually well camouflaged. Their pupae are attached to a stem, or flat surface.
Nymph and Danaid Butterflies - All Nymph and Danaid butterflies are strong and rapid fliers. Most of them are seen flying actively in a sunny day, although some species active during the evening. They rest with wings folded over the back, however, we also find that most of them like to expand their wings facing the sun to warm up their body. Caterpillars in this family vary enormously in colour, usually in cylindrical shape. The pupa are simply hanging on plants by the cremaster.
Blue and Copper Butterflies - The butterflies are from very small to medium size. Most of them have metallic colours, either blue or orange-brown in colour. They fly rapidly and erratically close to the ground. Most species males have their fore legs reduced, normal in female. The caterpillars of this family are small to medium size. Their head is usually held under the body, which is flattened and broad. Most species have dense short hairs. Some species their caterpillars secrete a substance which attracts ants, usually by a single or at most a few species of ants.

Order Hymenoptera 
Sawflies - Sawflies are closely related to wasps. Females have their special egg-laying tool, like a saw, to cut through leaf tissue for their eggs. Sawflies do not sting. However, the larvae may secrete irritating liquid onto the skin or eyes if disturbed. Sawfly larvae are sometimes seen on trees and shrubs, more commonly seen than their adults. Sawfly larvae are vegetarians and feed on leaf. Sawfly parents do not provide parental care to their young, except they lay them on the suitable food plants and some species guard their eggs until they hatch. 
Parasite Wasps - Their larvae are either parasitic or predators. Most caterpillar are targeted host. Some species attacked other insects and spiders. The female wasp usually locates the food plants of the host then searches with her antennae for a suitable host. The female usually has the long ovipositor which is used to insert eggs into the host body. Some species lay eggs externally and attack the host from outside. The host will usually survive when the larvae is still living. Until the larvae fully grown, the larvae either pupates inside the dead host or form a cocoon outside. 
Ichneumon Wasps
Members in this family have long and thin body, with narrow waist. Adults are active in day time and  feed on flowers. Some species are colourful. The female usually has the long ovipositor which is used to insert eggs into the host body. Some species lay eggs externally and attack the host from outside. The host will usually survive when the larvae is still living. Until the larvae fully grown, the larvae either pupates inside the dead host or form a cocoon outside.
Braconid Wasps
Members in this family are usually small in size. Their larvae are parasitic. The host will usually survive when the larvae is still living. Until the larvae fully grown, the larvae either pupates inside the dead host or form a cocoon outside. Many aphid parasites are braconid and their life cycles are similar.
Vespoid Wasps - Wasps have two pair of membranous wings with the forewings lager than the hind wings.  The female insects have strings to inject venom to their enemy where the string is their modified ovipositor. Most of them have a waist that separates the thorax and abdomen. Some of the them are social insects. They live in a highly organized group. Wasp larvae are carnivorous. They feed on other insects and spiders. The adult female provide food for them by capturing prey or by laying the egg on or near the food source. Female wasps spend most of their time in finding food and making nest for their young.
Ants - All ants are in family Formicidae and all of them have a waist. Their waist is composed of one or two knobs which are the first one or two segments of their abdomen. Their antennae have a distinct elbow. Ants live in colonies made up of several castes. These included the winged male, winged female and wingless workers. Ant colonies usually contain: an egg-laying queen and many workers together with their brood i.e., eggs, larvae and pupae. Worker ants carry out different jobs including nest construction, foraging, looking after the brood and queen, and nest defense.
Apoid Wasps - Species in these two families, Sphecidae and Crabronidae, are solitary hunting wasps.  Female wasp makes nest in soil or build mud cells for her young. She paralyses host arthropod, usually other insects or spiders, by her sting.  The sting is a modified ovipositor which injects venom paralyses but not kill the host. She keep the hosts in the nest and lay egg on hosts body. Larva hatches and feeds externally on prey. Larvae are legless and grub-like.
Bees - Most bees live as individual, although the famous Honey Bees are social insects. The solitary bees live in burrow under ground or in tree stems. In their nests, there are chambers for their larvae, beside there are the storage for the nectar and pollen. Some species bees live together and using the same entry, although each have their own nest and look after their own young. Bees'  mouthparts are modified to a hairy tongue, which is used for sucking up nectar from flowers. When rest bees fold their tongue in mouth in Z-shape.

Class Arachnida, Order Araneida
Hunting Spiders - Spider once spelt 'spinder' which simply means 'spinner'. All spiders has their silk glands at their bottom of their abdomen, the back side of their body. Some spiders build webs and some do not. But all spiders make silk egg sac to protect their young. We grouped all the spiders that do not build web in this section. 
Jumping Spiders - Jumping Spider, the salticids, is a very large spider family. They are from small to medium size.  They are easily recognized by their eyes pattern. Their front pair of eyes are very large with another three pair of smaller eyes on thorax, in three row of 4-2-2. They have very good eyesight and active during the day. The arrangements of four pairs of eyes makes their vision covers virtually entire 360 degree.
Web Building Spiders -  Spider once spelt 'spinder' which simply means 'spinner'. All spiders has their silk glands at their bottom of their abdomen, the back side of their body. Some spiders build webs and some do not. But all spiders make silk egg sac to protect their young. We grouped all the spiders that build web in this section, including those build orb web, tangle web and web casters.
Orb Web Weavers - Araneidae is a large family. They can be small to large in side. All species in this family, if they make webs, they make vertical or horizontal orb webs. Some species construct some sort of stabilizer in the center of the web. Some members in this family do not make web at all. All of them have eight eyes. 


Brisbane Spiders Field Guide

And more ..............

 Here are some ideas so far we learn from  insects and spiders.

Photos by Peter Chew taken in Brisbane otherwise stated.
Text by Tony, Sandy and Peter Chew. 
Tony, Sandy and Peter 2001                      Peter and Tony 2006                                     Peter 2010

Please feel free to use the information on these pages. We can only guarantee those information are NOT 100% correct. Email me if you need the original photos with higher resolution. Charges will be apply if the photos are for commercial use. Remember that it is important to be healthy when researching insects. We recommend these medifast coupon codes to help with that. 

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Last updated: July 05, 2013.