Jumping Spiders
Genus Opisthoncus
Small Garden Jumping Spider
Two-spotted Jumping Spider
Garden Jumping Spider
Biting Jumping Spider
Long-jawed Jumping Spider
Colourful Biting Jumper 
Genus Sandalodes
Double-brush Jumper 
Ludicra Jumping Spider
Flat-white Jumping Spider
Flat-brown Jumping Spider 
Invisible Jumping Spider
Golden Tail Jumper 
Small Brown Jumpers
Salticid Ant Eater
Three-lines Jumper 
Brown Jumper
Black Jumper
Well-dressed Jumper
Other Groups
Small Striped Jumping Spider 
Cytaea Jumping Spider
Aussie Bronze Jumper
Unknown Jumpers


Jumping Spiders Biology - FAMILY SALTICIDAE

This page contains pictures and information about Jumping Spiders Biology in general. 
Male jumping spider protecting his nest and a female. 
Jumping Spider is a very large family contains the most colourful species of spiders. They are small to medium size.  They are easily recognized by their eyes pattern. Their front pair of eyes are very large, with another three pair of smaller eyes on thorax, in three row of 4-2-2. They have very good eyesight and actively hunting during the day. The arrangements of their four pairs of eyes made their vision covers virtually entire 360 degree.
Each species in this family have different colourful patterns on their body. When you look at them, they will either hide away on the other side of the leaf or will turn their head and look back at you.
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Jumping spiders are called Pussy Cat in Chinese. The above pictures show jumping spiders with cat's face, this may explain why they are called. 

Safety Line

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When jumping spiders move or jump, they always leave a safety line of silk, or the drag-line, behind. Look carefully at the about first pictures you can see the drag-line attached from the spider abdomen tip to a leaf. If the jump missed the spiders can always climb back to its original position.
More information about spiders and their silk can be found in this page.

Hunter on Leaf and stem

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Jumping Spiders hunt on plants during the day. They have complex eyes system and considered to be the best vision among all the animals of their size. The eyes of jumping spider, especially the largest pair of eyes, are constructed very differently from vertebrate and insect eyes. Each eye has a long eye tube which is attached with a set of muscles, it is capable of precise rotate and move. 
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However, jumping spider's eyes can not adjust the focus. The retinas have a four-layer and tiered arrangement. There is another lens just in front of the retina. This makes the spider's eyes a telephoto lens system. The spider can see sharp image ranging from one body length to infinity. It is also believed the jumping spider can see colours. 
They use their excellent vision to track the prey and estimate distance. Then suddenly jump on their prey. They use their third and fourth pair of legs for jumping. They seize prey by front pair of legs.  

Hunter on Tree Trunk

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The jumping spiders also hunt on bark, it is well camouflage. Hanging from its safety-line, it jumps down, swings and lands on the insect when the insect just lands on the tree trunk.

Female, eggs and retreat

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Jumping spiders do not build webs. They make silken retreats between leaves, barks or stones. Their retreats usually have opening at both ends. They hide in their retreats at night and during winter.   
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Some jumping spiders build retreat and eggs sac on single or double green leaves.
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Some jumping spiders build retreat on tree trunk 
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The females lay eggs in their retreats in spring and summer. Their number of eggs is relatively fewer than most other spiders. Female spiders will guard their eggs. Usually Jumping Spiders will not hunt too far away from their retreats. Male and female may live together in mating season. This is not common in other spider families.

As Prey

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Jumping Spiders are the predator of small spiders and insects. However, we found that Jumping spiders are the prey of the Mud-Dauber Wasps. They are also prey if they fall onto the web of Web Building Spiders.  

1. A Guide to Australian Spiders - Densey Clyne, Melbourne, Nelson 1969, p51.
2. Family SALTICIDAE Blackwall, 1841 - Australian Faunal Directory, Australian Biological Resources Study.
 - Australian Biological Resources Study.
3. PREDATORY BEHAVIOR OF JUMPING SPIDERS - R.R. Jackson and S.D. Pollard, Annual Review of Entomology, Vol. 41: 287-308 (January 1996).
4. Australia - List of Species of Salticidae - by Jerzy Proszynski, 1999. 

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Last updated: September 26, 2009.